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Ohm’s law describes the relationship between Voltage, Resistance and Current where Voltage (V) is trying to force charge to flow, Resistance (R) is resisting that flow, and the actual resulting Current (I).
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The Law Definition
Ohm’s Law states that electric current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. Mathematically, the law states that V = IR, where V is the voltage difference, I is the current in amperes, and R is the resistance in ohms.
Who Invented This Law?
Ohm’s Law is Named after the Great German Physicist and Mathematician – Georg Simon Ohm. He was born on March 16, 1789 and died on July 6, 1854.
Georg Simon Ohm did a research on the Battery Invented by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta.
He concluded his research with a Formula which states that the current flow through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (voltage) and inversely proportional to the resistance. Finally, this relationship is Ohm’s law.
Ohm’s Law Formula
I = V / R; where
I = Electrical Current Flowing through the Resistor
V = Voltage Drop of the Resistor
R = R is the resistance of the resistor, measured in Ohms (Ω)
The Ohm’s law formula helps to calculate voltage, current and resistance. Now we are explain ohm’s law that’s make you easy for understand the details very easily.
Understanding The Law
As per the law, we can state that:
- Large voltage and low resistances produces large current.
- Large resistance limit current to low values.
Question: Almost every electric circuit is more complicated than just a basic circuit with a battery and a resistor. So which voltage does the formula refer to?
Answer: Well, it refers to the voltage across the resistor, the voltage between the two terminal wires.
Looked at another way, that voltage is actually produced by the resistor.
The resistor is restricting the flow of charge, slowing it down, and this creates a traffic jam on one side, forming an excess of charge with respect to the other side.
Any such charge difference or separation results in a voltage between the two points.
Ohm’s law tells us how to calculate that voltage if we know the resistor value and the current flow. This voltage drop is analogous to the drop in water pressure through a small pipe or small nozzle.
German physicist Georg Simon Ohm discovered the law. The law was published in his 1827 paper, “The Galvanic Circuit Investigated Mathematically.” Material obeying the principle of Ohm’s Law is called linear or ohmic because the potential difference measured between two points varies linearly with the electric current.
Gustav Kirchhoff reformulated Ohm’s law as J = sE, where J is the density of current at a given location in a material having resistance, E is the electric field at that particular location, and s is the conductivity, which is a parameter that depends on the material.
Ohm’s law is generalized after a lot of experiments on materials that proved the direct relationship of the current with the electric field associated with the materials. Ohm’s law may not hold true all the time.
Experiments have proved that some materials behave in a non-ohmic way when weak electric field is applied to them. Early on, it was believed that Ohm’s law would not be unsuccessful at the atomic scale. But later, researchers proved that Ohm’s law is applicable for silicon wires with a width of only four atoms and a height of only one atom.
Example-1: Find the current of an electrical circuit that has resistance of 100 Ohms and voltage supply of 10 Volts.
V = 10 V
R = 100 Ω
I = V / R = 10V / 100Ω = 0.1A = 100mA
Example-2: Find the voltage applied across 100 kΩ resistors when 5 mA current flows through it
Solution: V = 100 kΩ * 5 mA = 500 V
Example-3: Find the value of a Resistor which drops 100 V when 50 mA current is flowing through it.
Solution: R = 100 V / 50mA = 200 Ω
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